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APA 6th Edition: Basics: Formatting Authors in a Text Citation

Basic examples for citing sources in APA style for undergraduates or those with little experience using APA.

  One or More Authors for the Same Source

See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 177, Table 6.1

One author    

Smith (2007)
Subsequent citations in text    Smith (2007)
Parenthetical citation (Smith, 2007)

Subsequent citations

(Smith, 2007)

Two citations by same author
published in the same year
used at different points in the text

Wienhorst (2010a)
Wienhorst  (2010b)  

 Two citations by same author in
the same text citation

Wienhorst (2010a, 2010b)
Two authors  Smith and Thomas (2007)
Subsequent citations in text Smith and Thomas (2007)
Parenthetical citation (Smith & Thomas, 2007)

Subsequent citations

 

(Smith & Thomas, 2007)
Three authors Smith, Thomas, and Jones (2007)
Subsequent citations in text Smith et al. (2007)
Parenthetical citation (Smith, Thomas, & Jones, 2007)

Subsequent parenthetical
    citations

 

(Smith et al., 2007)
Four authors Higgins, Chow, Ito, and Kawazaki (2000)
Subsequent citations in text Higgins et al. (2000)
Parenthetical citation (Higgins, Chow, Ito, & Kawazaki, 2000)

Subsequent parenthetical
    citations

 

(Higgins et al., 2000)

 

 Five authors Schaefer, Ramirez, Lucio, Davidson, and Pastillo (2008)
Subsequent citations in text Schaefer et al. (2008)
Parenthetical citation (Schaefer, Ramriez, Lucio, Davidson, & Pastillo, 2008)

Subsequent parenthetical
    citations

 

(Schaefer et al., 2008)

 

 Six or more authors Hutchens et al. (2010)
Subsequent citations in text Hutchens et al. (2010)
Parenthetical citation (Hutchens et al., 2010)
Subsequent parenthetical
    citations
(Hutchens et al., 2010)
 

Two references that have the
same year and several of the same authors.
See APA manual, p. 175 and APA Style Blog
(comments)



Bischoff, Frey, Hoeferkamp, and Wienhorst (2011) 
Bischoff, Frey, Smith, and Holmes (2011)
Subsequent citations in text Bischoff, Frey, Hoeferkamp, et al. (2011
Bischoff, Frey, Smith, et al. (2011
)
Parenthetical citation (Bischoff, Frey, Hoeferkamp, & Wienhorst, 2011) 
(Bischoff, Frey, Smith, & Holmes, 2011)
Subsequent parenthetical citations (Bischoff, Frey, Hoeferkamp, et al., 2011)
(Bischoff, Frey, Smith, et al., 2011)
Two citatations with same author and same year   Stahl (2011a)
Stahl (2011b)
Johnson (in press-a)
Johnson (in press-b)
Parenthetical citation

(Stahl, 2011a)
(Stahl, 2011b)
(Johnson, in press-a)
(Johnson, in press-b)

Two works within same parentheses (Stahl, 2011a, 2011b)
(Johnson, in press-a, in press-b)
(Johson, in press-a, in press-b; Stahl, 2011a, 2011b)

Note that APA does not use et al. in the reference list, however.

When there are more than seven authors, you list the first six authors and the last author with ellipses to indicate that all the names were not included. See APA. p. 198, #2

Hutchens,

H. M., McKay, J., Alvarado, F., Plath, E., Jordan, A.,  Porter, M., . . . Allsop, S. (2005). The attractions of stupidity. The St. Croix e-Review, 30(2), 6-10.  doi:10.2004/4002/StCeR/24.43

  

  No Author(s)

See APA (6th ed.), pp. 176-177

Ex. 1: Article, book chapter, web page, special issue of journal --  See APA, p. 176

Challenges to the findings ("The Oil Spill," 2010) were made.

"The Oil Spill" (2010) discussed challenges to the findings.

"The Oil Spill" published in 2010 discussed challenges to the findings.

  • Use double quotes around the title or the first few words in the title.
  • The comma goes inside the double quotes.
  • You can use the first few words of the title if the entire is too long. For example:  ("Rewriting the long 18th century," 2008)
  • The important words in the article title are capitalized in the text of the paper, but only the first word is capitalized in the reference citation at the end of the paper.

Ex. 2: Periodical, book, report, or brochure title--     See APA, p. 176

The report (Remediation in Higher Education, 2005) stated 

Remediation in Higher Education (2005) stated

In 2005, Remediation in Higher Education stated

  • Italicize the title
  • If the entire title is too long, use the first few words in the title.
  • The important words in the title of the report are capitalized in the text of the paper, but only the first word is capitalized in the reference citation at the end of the paper.

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