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Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition: Author-Date Style: In-Text Citations

Quick guide for Chicago Manual of Style - Author-Date Style

General Note

Exceptions to Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date Style that are exclusive to the Oceanographic Center at NSU are indicated in GREEN.


Also called parenthetical citations, in-text citations are found within the main body of the document immediately after a quote or a paraphrase.  

In-Text Citations

If using EndNote's Cite While You Write feature, please make sure that the formatting provided by EndNote adheres to the following rules:

Basic Rule of Thumb:

(Contributors' Surnames Year of Publication, Page or Section Number When Available)


End of a Sentence (or end of a Figure Caption)

Work with One Author:  (Dodge 1989)

Work with Two Authors: (Sutton and Frank 2013)

Work with more than two Authors:  (Spieler et al. 2005)


Beginning of a Sentence:

Shivji et al. (2010) stated that......


Middle of a Sentence:

After analyzing data from both studies, Gilliam (2008) concluded.....


Quote: Block Quotations:

Reigl (2015) stated that 

The relationship between regeneration and SST/chl-a is negatively exponential and effects are multiplicative/divisive (after taking the anti-log of an originally linear, but logarithmically-scaled model). This helps explain why damage patterns on reefs are frequently observed as a slow progression within a realm of rather low degradation that may not be easily discernible, until a point is reached from which fast degradation results in rapid ecosystem collapse. Interestingly, an exponential increase in number of coral bleaching reports since the 1980s, when warming and anthropogenic nutrification trends began to manifest themselves clearly through damage on coral reefs, mirrors the exponential decrease of regeneration potential (2-3).