Evaluate Sources : "CRAAP" Test

Use the "CRAAP" test criteria to evaluate the credibility of a source that you are considering to use as a reference.

Tips for Evaluating Websites

Librarians recommend that students use the databases listed on the library’s website to search for information. 


However, many students Google their topics and use information found on websites for their research papers.   Often, these sites contain old or inaccurate information. 

So, how can a student decide what is a good website?  They can use the "CRAAP" test!

Currency     Relevancy     Authority     Accuracy     Purpose

"CRAAP" Test Tips:

Use the "CRAAP" test to evaluate online resources and websites!

For any information you find online, ask yourself the following questions.  If the information doesn't pass the "CRAAP" test, you probably should not use it.


  • When was it published or posted?
  • Has it been revised or updated?
  • Do you need current information, or are older sources acceptable?


  • Does it relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level?  Too advanced?  Too easy?


  • Who is the author, publisher, source, or sponsor?
  • What are their credentials or organizational affiliations?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the topic?


  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has it been reviewed or refereed?


  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform, teach, sell, entertain, or persuade?
  • Is the information fact, opinion, or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial, free of emotion, and unbiased? 

CRAAP Test Explained

While using the CRAAP test is not fool-proof, it will definitely give you the tools to make an educated guess.  Remember, when in doubt, ask a librarian!

Currency – This refers to how new or old is the information.  Information from just a couple of years ago may be out of date.  It really depends on the topic.

First thing you should do is look for dates on the website.  Has it been updated recently?  Or, has it been a while since the last update?  If it has been a while, then you may have out of date information.  Some information expires much quicker than others.  If the website is on the topic of science, technology, or business, then information on these subjects have a much shorter shelf life than information on humanities or social sciences.

Next Look for broken links.  Are there a lot?  If so, then it may have been a while since the last time this website was updated.

Relevancy – Is the information on the website relevant to what you need?  Look at the scope of the site and its focus.  Is that your topic? Is it a closely related topic?  These are the questions you need to ask yourself.

Authority – Who is the author or creator of this website?  This information should be located somewhere on the site.  What are the author’s credentials?  What are their affiliations?  Can you verify their qualifications?

You need to look at who is hosting or sponsoring this website.  All organizations have a point of view and the website may only give information relevant to their point of view.  Always consider what is the information for the other side of the argument.

Look at the domain.  Is it a .com, .org, .edu, or .gov?  Each of these domains have a different meaning.  If the domain has the names GeoCities, Yahoo, AngelFire, etc., these are all free websites and anyone with access to a computer can create them.

– Does the website give sources for the information provided?  Information given should be supported by a bibliography or a list of references.  Look for this information.  Are the facts verifiable?  Are they in-line with information found on other websites?  Do the pages on this website have authors?  Do they have attribution?

If the website has a bibliography or a reference list, are the sources credible?  Do you recognize the sources? Are they current?  Do they point to external websites?  Or, do they just point to different pages on the same website?

Purpose – What is the purpose of this site?  Remember back to authority.  Is it an organization with a point of view or an agenda that they wish to further?  What is the site trying to do?  Entertain? Inform?  Persuade? Sell you something?

Is the author biased?  Is the information presented in a fair, balanced, and moderate manner?  Or it is emotional and extreme?  Is there a sponsor?   This could give you a clue as to the purpose.

Don't Be Swindled!

Related Guides


Here is a helpful overview on evaluating sources from Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL):